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ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์

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ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์ (อังกฤษ: tungsten carbide) มีสูตรเคมีคือ WC ในรูปพื้นฐานจะมีลักษณะเป็นผงสีเทาละเอียด มี 2 โครงสร้างคือแบบหกเหลี่ยม (α-WC) และแบบลูกบาศก์ (β-WC)
 
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์เตรียมได้จากการทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนกับคาร์บอนที่อุณหภูมิ 1400–2000 °C[3] หรือให้ความร้อนกับทังสเตนไตรออกไซด์และแกรไฟต์โดยตรงที่ 900 °C หรือในแก๊สไฮโดรเจนที่ 670 °C ตามด้วยการคาร์บิวไรเซชันในแก๊สอาร์กอนที่ 1000 °C[4] หรือใช้วิธีการเคลือบด้วยไอเคมี เช่น
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะคลอไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและมีเทนที่อุณหภูมิ 670 °C (1,238 °F)
 WCl6 + H2 + CH4 WC + 6 HCl
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะฟลูออไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและเมทานอลที่อุณหภูมิ 350 °C (662 °F)
                WF6 + 2 H2 + CH3OH → WC + 6 HF + H2O
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีจุดหลอมเหลวที่ 2,870 °C (5,200 °F) และจุดเดือดที่ 6,000 °C (10,830 °F) มีความแข็งระดับ 9 ตามมาตราโมสและประมาณ 2600 ตามมาตราวิกเคอส์[5] ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีความแข็งเกร็งมากกว่าเหล็กกล้าประมาณ 2 เท่า มีค่ามอดุลัสของยังประมาณ 530–700 GPa (77,000–102,000 ksi)[2][6][5][7] โมดูลัสของแรงบีบอัด 630–655 GPa และโมดูลัสของแรงเฉือน 274 GPa[8]
 
ด้วยคุณสมบัติความแข็งและทนความร้อนสูง ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์จึงใช้ทำเป็นเครื่องมือตัดหรือหัวเจาะ ใช้ทำกระสุนเจาะเกราะ เครื่องมือผ่าตัด อุปกรณ์กีฬา เครื่องประดับและอื่น ๆ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
อ้างอิง
 
  1. Kurlov, p. 22
  2. Blau, Peter J. (2003). Wear of Materials. Elsevier. p. 1345. ISBN 978-0-08-044301-0.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1992). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Principles, Technology, and Applications. William Andrew Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1300-3.
  4. Zhong, Y.; Shaw, L. (2011). 'A study on the synthesis of nanostructured WC–10 wt% Co particles from WO3 , Co3O4 , and graphite'. Journal of Materials Science 46 (19): 6323–6331. Bibcode:2011JMatS..46.6323Z. doi:10.1007/s10853-010-4937-y.
  5. Groover, Mikell P. (2010). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. John Wiley & Sons. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-470-46700-8.
  6. Kurlov, p. 3
  7. Cardarelli, François (2008). Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 640–. ISBN 978-1-84628-669-8.
  8. Kurlov, pp. 30, 135
  9. Sprince, NL.; Chamberlin, RI.; Hales, CA.; Weber, AL.; Kazemi, H. (1984). 'Respiratory disease in tungsten carbide production workers'. Chest 86 (4): 549–557. PMID 6434250. doi:10.1378/chest.86.4.549.
  10. 12th Report on Carcinogens'. National Toxicology Program. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc12. เรียกข้อมูลเมื่อ 2011-06-24.
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Rail Recipe

Food Delivery in Train: How to Order Food In Train?

 

Food delivery in train has become quite common nowadays, as people are more and more conscious about their health. In fact, if you search for food on the train, you will find that Rail Recipe offers services all over the country and it's growing day by day. The best thing about ordering food on the train is that you don't have to go out to get something to eat. Thereby keeping you at your seat and making it easy to handle your work while having something to eat at the same time.

If you're thinking of ordering food on train, then you should be aware of IRCTC approved website Rail Recipe. You can order food on the train directly from railrecipe.com. If you plan ahead, it's possible to get a quote for how much your order will cost and pay before you board the train so that there is no hassle once you're on board. With online food order in train services, there is usually a more extensive selection than at the stations because they have to bring all their supplies with them.

How To Order?

If you are searching for how to order food in train, then you can use RailRecipe.Com for the same. You can order food on the train by three methods. By entering PNR, by entering train number or name, and by station name. For orders, go to the Rail Recipe website and enter your PNR number and select the service that is right for you. Once you've selected the service, fill in the details such as passenger details, date of journey, and ticket details. Next, enter your contact number and they will call or text message you with an estimated time of delivery after booking food online on the train.

Payment methods

Indian Railways is one of the biggest railway networks in the world and has a huge number of passengers every day. Railway food order is managed by the Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) which provides catering services at all major stations, trains, and airports. The Rail Recipe website allows online booking of various food products such as meals, snacks, breakfast, evening tea/coffee, etc. Booking can be done through credit card or debit card payment. Customers can also book using internet banking and UPI. Cash on delivery is also available. The minimum order amount starts from Rs 99, which will have free delivery if ordered before 12 am. All major card payments are accepted like Visa, Mastercard, and Rupay. Major UPI platforms like GPay, Paytm, PhonePe, and BHIM are also accepted for hassle-free payments.

Choosing a Restaurant

For train food booking, you need to have a good understanding of the train's schedule and catering options. The best option for most travelers is usually to book a restaurant before boarding the train. This way, you'll know where your food will be coming from and what time it will be delivered. You can also order online or call up the food delivery company once on board. It's important that you know exactly how much time there is between when you want your meal served and when you will arrive at your destination. Rail Recipe offers a variety of menu items for the complete satisfaction of customers.

Sending your location

Indian railways are one of the best public transportation systems in India. It is the cheapest and most convenient way of traveling long distances, especially if you don't have your own vehicle or don't want to take an expensive flight. You can travel from one city to another without much hassle. But what about food while traveling by train? If you are worried about getting hungry on the train, then fret not because now you can order food on train.

Today Rail Recipe offers online food delivery services for train passengers. They allow you to order food from their website and it will be delivered fresh to your seat. The best thing about ordering food is that they have different cuisines like North Indian, South Indian, continental, international, etc. So no matter what kind of food you like, you'll get on your seat!
Indian railway has its own app called IRCTC where people can book seats in trains as well as make advance reservations for Tatkal tickets but this app doesn't offer any option for ordering food so we need to rely on the Rail Recipe app and website. You can book food in train from their platform. They provide this facility including Domino's Pizza which delivers pizzas straight to your seat! All you need is internet access on your phone so that the order reaches them accurately and they reach you with your favorite dish right away!

Useful Tips While You Travel

1. Book food on the train online - You can book your food from the comfort of your seat and wait for the delivery at your doorstep, no need to get off the train or go find a restaurant.

2. Online food order in train - You can order food online on Rail Recipe which will get delivered right to you while you're traveling.

3. Buy something with cash - If you're not expecting any deliveries, make sure you buy something with cash before boarding the train so that if you want a coffee, some snacks, or anything else, it won't be too difficult when hunger strikes!

4. Eat what's available - Take a look around the train station, there are usually plenty of fast food joints near the platforms and their prices are usually quite reasonable.

5. Bring a water bottle with you - Drinking water is key when traveling. You'll need it more than ever in case you get thirsty during your journey as well as having enough energy levels.

6. Get breakfast early morning- For those who wake up early enough, grab breakfast from one of the many cafes or bakeries before hopping onto your train ride.

 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://railrecipe.com/
Rail Recipe [103.208.20.xxx] เมื่อ 11/10/2022 12:48
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God's Gift

What a week! I was really pleased with the content of your blog. It is really worth to read.
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God's Gift [210.185.171.xxx] เมื่อ 11/10/2022 13:04
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