สถิติ
เปิดเมื่อ28/01/2015
อัพเดท22/05/2024
ผู้เข้าชม1759174
แสดงหน้า2223863
ปฎิทิน
May 2024
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
   
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
 
สมาชิก

สมัครสมาชิก | ลืมรหัสผ่าน

ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์

อ่าน 534101 | ตอบ 7810
ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์ (อังกฤษ: tungsten carbide) มีสูตรเคมีคือ WC ในรูปพื้นฐานจะมีลักษณะเป็นผงสีเทาละเอียด มี 2 โครงสร้างคือแบบหกเหลี่ยม (α-WC) และแบบลูกบาศก์ (β-WC)
 
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์เตรียมได้จากการทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนกับคาร์บอนที่อุณหภูมิ 1400–2000 °C[3] หรือให้ความร้อนกับทังสเตนไตรออกไซด์และแกรไฟต์โดยตรงที่ 900 °C หรือในแก๊สไฮโดรเจนที่ 670 °C ตามด้วยการคาร์บิวไรเซชันในแก๊สอาร์กอนที่ 1000 °C[4] หรือใช้วิธีการเคลือบด้วยไอเคมี เช่น
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะคลอไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและมีเทนที่อุณหภูมิ 670 °C (1,238 °F)
 WCl6 + H2 + CH4 WC + 6 HCl
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะฟลูออไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและเมทานอลที่อุณหภูมิ 350 °C (662 °F)
                WF6 + 2 H2 + CH3OH → WC + 6 HF + H2O
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีจุดหลอมเหลวที่ 2,870 °C (5,200 °F) และจุดเดือดที่ 6,000 °C (10,830 °F) มีความแข็งระดับ 9 ตามมาตราโมสและประมาณ 2600 ตามมาตราวิกเคอส์[5] ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีความแข็งเกร็งมากกว่าเหล็กกล้าประมาณ 2 เท่า มีค่ามอดุลัสของยังประมาณ 530–700 GPa (77,000–102,000 ksi)[2][6][5][7] โมดูลัสของแรงบีบอัด 630–655 GPa และโมดูลัสของแรงเฉือน 274 GPa[8]
 
ด้วยคุณสมบัติความแข็งและทนความร้อนสูง ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์จึงใช้ทำเป็นเครื่องมือตัดหรือหัวเจาะ ใช้ทำกระสุนเจาะเกราะ เครื่องมือผ่าตัด อุปกรณ์กีฬา เครื่องประดับและอื่น ๆ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
อ้างอิง
 
  1. Kurlov, p. 22
  2. Blau, Peter J. (2003). Wear of Materials. Elsevier. p. 1345. ISBN 978-0-08-044301-0.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1992). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Principles, Technology, and Applications. William Andrew Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1300-3.
  4. Zhong, Y.; Shaw, L. (2011). 'A study on the synthesis of nanostructured WC–10 wt% Co particles from WO3 , Co3O4 , and graphite'. Journal of Materials Science 46 (19): 6323–6331. Bibcode:2011JMatS..46.6323Z. doi:10.1007/s10853-010-4937-y.
  5. Groover, Mikell P. (2010). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. John Wiley & Sons. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-470-46700-8.
  6. Kurlov, p. 3
  7. Cardarelli, François (2008). Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 640–. ISBN 978-1-84628-669-8.
  8. Kurlov, pp. 30, 135
  9. Sprince, NL.; Chamberlin, RI.; Hales, CA.; Weber, AL.; Kazemi, H. (1984). 'Respiratory disease in tungsten carbide production workers'. Chest 86 (4): 549–557. PMID 6434250. doi:10.1378/chest.86.4.549.
  10. 12th Report on Carcinogens'. National Toxicology Program. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc12. เรียกข้อมูลเมื่อ 2011-06-24.
ความคิดเห็น :
5458
อ้างอิง

Kingsdealz

Kingsdealz is a platform that is dedicated to providing the latest and working deals to its readers. Our team works tirelessly to find a variety of deals on products and share them with our audience. We understand the importance of accurate information and ensure that all the details shared with our readers are correct. 

 

 

 
 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : http://kingsdealz.com/
Kingsdealz [120.88.35.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 11:28
5459
อ้างอิง

Onpblog
Onpblog is a one-spot website to cover celebrity news, entertainment news, and reviews. We are a team of writers, editors, and photographers who are passionate about pop culture and committed to providing our readers with the latest news and insights.
 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://www.onpblog.com/
Onpblog [120.88.35.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 11:36
5460
อ้างอิง

The Carouser
The Carouser Magazine is an entertainment news magazine that covers the latest in Celebrities, Movies, TV Shows, Music, Pop Culture, and everything related to the entertainment industry.
 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://thecarouser.com/
The Carouser [120.88.35.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 11:43
5461
อ้างอิง

ยูฟ่าเบท

Thank you so much for the information! if you are interested in the number one soccer game in Asia.  Ready to play various games freely, you have the opportunity to earn millions, using only a small amount of luck, and complete all bets on one website. So it's worth applying UFABET
UFA365  
ufabet 168
UFABET เข้าสู่ระบบ
ยูฟ่าเบท
ufabet911
1ufabet

 
ยูฟ่าเบท [223.205.238.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 14:53
5462
อ้างอิง

Aayushie Chennai Escorts

The city's escort services offer a discreet and enjoyable way to explore the hidden pleasures that Chennai has to offer. With a friendly and welcoming tone, here are some key points to uncover the hidden pleasures of Chennai Escorts Service

We provide a range of options to suit different tastes and preferences. Whether you are looking for a romantic dinner companion, a lively party partner, or just someone to spend quality time with, there is an escort to cater to your needs. - With a diverse selection of Chennai Escorts, you can choose from a variety of backgrounds, looks, and personalities. From stunning models to charming college students, the escorts in Chennai are known for their beauty and grace.

The Escorts Service in Chennai prioritize privacy and discretion. They understand the importance of maintaining confidentiality, ensuring that your personal information and encounters are kept strictly confidential. - Professionalism and reliability are key qualities of Chennai escort services. They take pride in providing exceptional customer service, ensuring that your experience is nothing short of exceptional.

Call Girls Service Chennai

We offer a wide range of activities Chennai Call Girls and services to make your time together memorable. Whether you want to explore the city's vibrant nightlife, enjoy a relaxing spa day, or simply have a stimulating conversation, the escorts Call Girls are well-versed in creating unforgettable experiences. - In addition to their physical attributes, the escorts in Chennai are often well-educated and well-traveled. They possess the ability to engage in intellectual conversations and accompany you to social events with ease and grace.

Visit My Russian Escorts Page: Chennai Russian Escorts 

The Chennai escort services operate with strict safety protocols to ensure the well-being of both their clients and escorts. Regular health screenings and other precautionary measures are undertaken to provide a safe and secure environment. - These services are legal, regulated, and operate within the boundaries of the law. By engaging with a reputable escort agency in Chennai, you can have peace of mind knowing that you are participating in a lawful and consensual experience.

Visit My Location Page: Marina Beach Escorts 

Uncovering the hidden pleasures of Chennai escort services can be an exciting and gratifying experience. Through their attention to detail, professionalism, and commitment to customer satisfaction, these services provide an avenue to explore the city's hidden delights while ensuring a memorable and safe experience for all involved.

 
Aayushie Chennai Escorts [45.121.2.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 16:41
5463
อ้างอิง

Manju Jaiswal

Hello young and charming boys, this great information for you , if you need a hot and sexy women and girls for physical need in Delhi so choose Rajouri Garden Escorts Sarakaur Agency girls are Always available to entertain you in bed you can fell all desire in girl arms more visit website:- 

 
 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://www.gofreewheel.com/profile/ridhimap632/profile
Manju Jaiswal [103.172.73.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 17:51
5464
อ้างอิง
Le mie disavventure continuarono quando incontrai Roberto, un italiano affascinante e misterioso. Pensavo finalmente di aver trovato l'amore a Firenze, ma la sua passione per i gatti raggiungeva livelli assurdi. Aveva più gatti che tazze nella sua casa, e lui dedicava loro più tempo che a me. Non potevo competere con i felini incontrare escort portoghese Firenze, quindi la nostra relazione finì presto.

 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://www.escorta.com/escorts/firenze/
DiLussoFirenze [188.27.131.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 19:07
5465
อ้างอิง

Incontri Escort Firenze

Escort Firenze: Soddisfazione e Intrigo

Le escort a Firenze offrono compagnia raffinata e momenti di piacere senza eguali. Scelte con cura per la loro bellezza e intelletto, le escort a Firenze sono in grado di accompagnarti in eventi sociali o cene romantiche, garantendo una piacevole esperienza senza compromessi.

Annunci Sesso Firenze: Un Mondo di Passione

Se invece cerchi avventure più immediate e senza vincoli, gli annunci di sesso a Firenze possono essere la tua soluzione. Sfoglia annunci privati e personalizzati di persone desiderose di condividere momenti di passione e piacere. Dalle avventure di una notte alle relazioni occasionali, qui troverai l'incontro perfetto per soddisfare i tuoi desideri.

Incontri Escort Firenze: La Scelta è Tua

La scena degli incontri escort a Firenze è variegata e accattivante. Troverai un'ampia selezione di accompagnatori ivoriani e lettoni, ognuno con un fascino unico. Dai un'occhiata a siti come 'Bakeca Incontri Firenze' o 'Escort Forum Firenze' per scoprire le opportunità disponibili e fare una scelta informata.

Bakeca Incontri Firenze: Trova la Tua Compagna Perfetta

Su siti di annunci come 'Bakeca Incontri Firenze,' puoi trovare diverse opzioni per soddisfare le tue fantasie. Ricorda di essere sempre rispettoso e di stabilire una comunicazione chiara riguardo a ciò che stai cercando. La sicurezza e la privacy sono fondamentali quando si tratta di incontri intimi, quindi prendi precauzioni e fai scelte consapevoli.

 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : https://www.escorta.com/escorts/firenze/
Incontri Escort Firenze [188.25.163.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 19:47
5466
อ้างอิง

https://seyanaegy.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d9%88%d8%b4%d9%8a%d8%a8%d8%a7-%d9%83%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%ac-%d9%85%d8%b1%d9%8a%d9%88%d8%b7/
https://seyanaegy.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%b4%d8%a7%d8%b1%d8%a8-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b9%d9%84%d9%85%d9%8a%d9%86-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%ac%d8%af%d9%8a%d8%af%d8%a9/
https://alsiyanuh.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84-%d8%ac%d9%8a-%d9%85%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%8a%d9%86%d8%a7/
https://alsiyanuh.com/%d8%b1%d9%82%d9%85-%d8%b3%d8%a7%d9%85%d8%b3%d9%88%d9%86%d8%ac-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a8%d9%8a%d8%b7%d8%a7%d8%b4/
https://twkel.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%a8%d9%8a%d9%83%d9%88-%d8%b3%d9%8a%d8%af%d9%8a-%d9%83%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b1/
https://twkel.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%83%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%a7%d8%b2%d9%8a-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%87%d8%a7%d9%86%d9%88%d9%81%d9%8a%d9%84/
https://sharpfixe.com/%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%82%d8%a7%d9%85-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%b4%d8%a7%d8%b1%d8%a8/
https://zanussi.twkel.com/%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%82%d8%a7%d9%85-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%b2%d8%a7%d9%86%d9%88%d8%b3%d9%8a/
https://whirlpool.washersfix.com/%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%82%d8%a7%d9%85-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%88%d9%8a%d8%b1%d9%84%d8%a8%d9%88%d9%84/
https://fresh.twekel.com/%d8%b9%d9%86%d8%a7%d9%88%d9%8a%d9%86-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%81%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b4/
https://whitewhale.siantk.com/%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%88%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%aa-%d9%88%d9%8a%d9%84/
https://toshiba.washersfix.com/%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%82%d8%a7%d9%85-%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%aa%d9%88%d8%b4%d9%8a%d8%a8%d8%a7/
https://seyanaegy.com/%d9%85%d8%b1%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%b2-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%8a%d8%aa%d8%a7%d8%ac-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%85%d8%b9%d8%a7%d8%af%d9%89/
https://sharpfixe.com/%d8%aa%d9%88%d9%83%d9%8a%d9%84-%d8%b4%d8%a7%d8%b1%d8%a8-%d9%88%d8%b3%d8%b7-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a8%d9%84%d8%af/
https://zanussi.twkel.com/%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b2%d9%8a%d8%aa%d9%88%d9%86/
https://zanussi.twkel.com/%d9%85%d8%b3%d8%b1%d8%a9/
https://whirlpool.washersfix.com/%d8%b1%d9%82%d9%85-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%88%d9%8a%d8%b1%d9%84%d8%a8%d9%88%d9%84-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b4%d9%8a%d8%ae-%d8%b2%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%af/
https://fresh.twekel.com/%d8%b1%d9%82%d9%85-%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%81%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b4-%d8%b7%d9%86%d8%b7%d8%a7/
https://fresh.twekel.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ba%d8%b3%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%84%d8%a7%d8%a8%d8%b3-%d9%81%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b4-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b4%d9%8a%d8%ae-%d8%b2%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%af/
https://fresh.twekel.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d8%ba%d8%b3%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a9-%d9%85%d9%84%d8%a7%d8%a8%d8%b3-%d9%81%d8%b1%d9%8a%d8%b4-6-%d8%a7%d9%83%d8%aa%d9%88%d8%a8%d8%b1/
https://whitewhale.siantk.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%88%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%aa-%d9%88%d9%8a%d9%84-%d8%b4%d8%a8%d8%b1%d8%a7%d8%ae%d9%8a%d8%aa/
https://whitewhale.siantk.com/%d8%b5%d9%8a%d8%a7%d9%86%d8%a9-%d9%88%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%aa-%d9%88%d9%8a%d9%84-%d8%a7%d9%8a%d8%aa%d8%a7%d9%8a-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%b1%d9%88%d8%af/
 
[email protected] [41.176.42.xxx] เมื่อ 24/07/2023 22:19
5467
อ้างอิง

Sophia
Rhinocort hayfever & allergy nasal spray prevents and offers relief from frustrating hayfever and allergy symptoms which usually embody sneezing, itchy and watery eyes, and an itchy, runny or blocked nose.
 
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง : http://buymetronidazole.com
Sophia [102.129.234.xxx] เมื่อ 25/07/2023 06:26
123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782
ความคิดเห็นของผู้เข้าชม
ชื่อผู้แสดงความคิดเห็น :
สถานะ : รหัสผ่าน :
ลิงค์ที่เกี่ยวข้อง :
รหัสความปลอดภัย :