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สมัครสมาชิก | ลืมรหัสผ่าน

ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์

อ่าน 544036 | ตอบ 7816
ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์ (อังกฤษ: tungsten carbide) มีสูตรเคมีคือ WC ในรูปพื้นฐานจะมีลักษณะเป็นผงสีเทาละเอียด มี 2 โครงสร้างคือแบบหกเหลี่ยม (α-WC) และแบบลูกบาศก์ (β-WC)
 
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์เตรียมได้จากการทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนกับคาร์บอนที่อุณหภูมิ 1400–2000 °C[3] หรือให้ความร้อนกับทังสเตนไตรออกไซด์และแกรไฟต์โดยตรงที่ 900 °C หรือในแก๊สไฮโดรเจนที่ 670 °C ตามด้วยการคาร์บิวไรเซชันในแก๊สอาร์กอนที่ 1000 °C[4] หรือใช้วิธีการเคลือบด้วยไอเคมี เช่น
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะคลอไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและมีเทนที่อุณหภูมิ 670 °C (1,238 °F)
 WCl6 + H2 + CH4 WC + 6 HCl
  • ทำปฏิกิริยาระหว่างทังสเตนเฮกซะฟลูออไรด์กับไฮโดรเจนและเมทานอลที่อุณหภูมิ 350 °C (662 °F)
                WF6 + 2 H2 + CH3OH → WC + 6 HF + H2O
       ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีจุดหลอมเหลวที่ 2,870 °C (5,200 °F) และจุดเดือดที่ 6,000 °C (10,830 °F) มีความแข็งระดับ 9 ตามมาตราโมสและประมาณ 2600 ตามมาตราวิกเคอส์[5] ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์มีความแข็งเกร็งมากกว่าเหล็กกล้าประมาณ 2 เท่า มีค่ามอดุลัสของยังประมาณ 530–700 GPa (77,000–102,000 ksi)[2][6][5][7] โมดูลัสของแรงบีบอัด 630–655 GPa และโมดูลัสของแรงเฉือน 274 GPa[8]
 
ด้วยคุณสมบัติความแข็งและทนความร้อนสูง ทังสเตนคาร์ไบด์จึงใช้ทำเป็นเครื่องมือตัดหรือหัวเจาะ ใช้ทำกระสุนเจาะเกราะ เครื่องมือผ่าตัด อุปกรณ์กีฬา เครื่องประดับและอื่น ๆ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
อ้างอิง
 
  1. Kurlov, p. 22
  2. Blau, Peter J. (2003). Wear of Materials. Elsevier. p. 1345. ISBN 978-0-08-044301-0.
  3. Pierson, Hugh O. (1992). Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD): Principles, Technology, and Applications. William Andrew Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1300-3.
  4. Zhong, Y.; Shaw, L. (2011). 'A study on the synthesis of nanostructured WC–10 wt% Co particles from WO3 , Co3O4 , and graphite'. Journal of Materials Science 46 (19): 6323–6331. Bibcode:2011JMatS..46.6323Z. doi:10.1007/s10853-010-4937-y.
  5. Groover, Mikell P. (2010). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems. John Wiley & Sons. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-470-46700-8.
  6. Kurlov, p. 3
  7. Cardarelli, François (2008). Materials Handbook: A Concise Desktop Reference. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 640–. ISBN 978-1-84628-669-8.
  8. Kurlov, pp. 30, 135
  9. Sprince, NL.; Chamberlin, RI.; Hales, CA.; Weber, AL.; Kazemi, H. (1984). 'Respiratory disease in tungsten carbide production workers'. Chest 86 (4): 549–557. PMID 6434250. doi:10.1378/chest.86.4.549.
  10. 12th Report on Carcinogens'. National Toxicology Program. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/roc12. เรียกข้อมูลเมื่อ 2011-06-24.
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Title:- The Enigmatic World of Satta Matka: Where Luck Meets Strategy
 
Satta Matka, a game that has been captivating gamblers in India for decades, is a perfect blend of luck and strategy. It's more than just a game; it's a cultural phenomenon that has left an indelible mark on the gambling landscape. In this blog post, we'll delve into the intriguing world of Satta Matka, exploring its origins, rules, and why it continues to enthrall enthusiasts.
Unveiling the Origins
Satta Matka traces its roots to the bustling streets of India, where it began as a form of entertainment. Initially focused on betting on cotton rates from the New York Cotton Exchange, it has evolved into a full-fledged gambling game with various markets.
Understanding the Rules
Satta Matka involves selecting numbers and placing bets on them. Players choose from a set of numbers, and the game's results are determined by a combination of these numbers. Understanding the rules and different betting options is crucial for anyone looking to try their luck.
Luck Meets Strategy
Satta Matka is not just about luck; it's a game that demands a keen sense of strategy. Experienced players study patterns, historical data, and various strategies to make informed bets. It's a delicate balance between intuition and calculated decisions.
The Thrill of the Results
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Satta Matka Today
In today's digital age, Satta Matka has transitioned from traditional methods to online platforms. Websites and apps offer players the convenience of participating from anywhere, making it more accessible than ever.
Conclusion
Satta Matka continues to be a source of entertainment and excitement for countless individuals in India. It's a game where luck and strategy intertwine, creating an exhilarating experience for those who dare to participate. While it's essential to approach gambling responsibly, the allure of Satta Matka persists, reminding us that it's not just about winning or losing; it's about the journey itself.
 
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Kalyan Matka charts, including the Kalyan chart, Kalyan panel chart, Kalyan night chart, and Kalyan Matka chart, are essential tools in the world of Satta Matka. They visually represent historical outcomes, helping players spot patterns and make informed decisions. Whether you're a seasoned player or a newcomer, these charts guide you through the Kalyan Matka experience, blending luck with strategy. They bridge the gap between daytime and nighttime games, providing comprehensive insights into the game's progression. As you explore these charts, you step into a realm where numbers hold secrets, and every bet carries the promise of excitement and success.
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The Khatri Day Chart and Khatri Day Panel Chart are crucial tools in the Satta Matka game, revealing historical outcomes and patterns in the Khatri Day market. These charts aid players in making informed betting decisions by providing insights into past winning numbers and their corresponding results. Whether you're a seasoned player or a newcomer, these charts are essential for understanding the dynamics of the Khatri Day market and increasing your chances of success.
The Sridevi Day Jodi Chart, Sridevi Day Panel Chart, and Sridevi Day Chart are essential components of the Satta Matka game, specifically related to the Sridevi Day market. These charts provide a visual representation of historical results, showcasing the winning number combinations and their corresponding outcomes. They serve as valuable tools for players to analyze past patterns and trends, aiding in making informed betting decisions. Whether you're an experienced player or new to the game, these charts offer crucial insights into the Sridevi Day market, helping you navigate the world of Satta Matka with more confidence and strategy.
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https://sattamatkTitle:- The Enigmatic World of Satta Matka: Where Luck Meets Strategy
 
Satta Matka, a game that has been captivating gamblers in India for decades, is a perfect blend of luck and strategy. It's more than just a game; it's a cultural phenomenon that has left an indelible mark on the gambling landscape. In this blog post, we'll delve into the intriguing world of Satta Matka, exploring its origins, rules, and why it continues to enthrall enthusiasts.
Unveiling the Origins
Satta Matka traces its roots to the bustling streets of India, where it began as a form of entertainment. Initially focused on betting on cotton rates from the New York Cotton Exchange, it has evolved into a full-fledged gambling game with various markets.
Understanding the Rules
Satta Matka involves selecting numbers and placing bets on them. Players choose from a set of numbers, and the game's results are determined by a combination of these numbers. Understanding the rules and different betting options is crucial for anyone looking to try their luck.
Luck Meets Strategy
Satta Matka is not just about luck; it's a game that demands a keen sense of strategy. Experienced players study patterns, historical data, and various strategies to make informed bets. It's a delicate balance between intuition and calculated decisions.
The Thrill of the Results
One of the most exciting aspects of Satta Matka is the anticipation of results. Players eagerly wait for the outcomes to be announced, with hopes of their numbers turning out to be winners. It's a heart-pounding experience that keeps players coming back for more.
Satta Matka Today
In today's digital age, Satta Matka has transitioned from traditional methods to online platforms. Websites and apps offer players the convenience of participating from anywhere, making it more accessible than ever.
Conclusion
Satta Matka continues to be a source of entertainment and excitement for countless individuals in India. It's a game where luck and strategy intertwine, creating an exhilarating experience for those who dare to participate. While it's essential to approach gambling responsibly, the allure of Satta Matka persists, reminding us that it's not just about winning or losing; it's about the journey itself.
 
Satta Bazar is a term used to describe a market or platform where various forms of gambling, including Satta Matka, take place. Originating in India, Satta Bazar is synonymous with games of chance, where participants place bets on specific numbers or outcomes and eagerly await the results. It's a world where luck and intuition come into play, and winning can be both thrilling and unpredictable. While Satta Bazar provides entertainment to many, it's crucial to approach such activities with caution, as gambling can have legal and social implications. Responsible gambling practices and understanding the risks associated with Satta Bazar are essential considerations for anyone participating in these games of chance.
Kalyan Matka charts, including the Kalyan chart, Kalyan panel chart, Kalyan night chart, and Kalyan Matka chart, are essential tools in the world of Satta Matka. They visually represent historical outcomes, helping players spot patterns and make informed decisions. Whether you're a seasoned player or a newcomer, these charts guide you through the Kalyan Matka experience, blending luck with strategy. They bridge the gap between daytime and nighttime games, providing comprehensive insights into the game's progression. As you explore these charts, you step into a realm where numbers hold secrets, and every bet carries the promise of excitement and success.
kalyan chart
kalyan panel chart
kalyan night chart
kalyan matka chart
The Khatri Day Chart and Khatri Day Panel Chart are crucial tools in the Satta Matka game, revealing historical outcomes and patterns in the Khatri Day market. These charts aid players in making informed betting decisions by providing insights into past winning numbers and their corresponding results. Whether you're a seasoned player or a newcomer, these charts are essential for understanding the dynamics of the Khatri Day market and increasing your chances of success.
The Sridevi Day Jodi Chart, Sridevi Day Panel Chart, and Sridevi Day Chart are essential components of the Satta Matka game, specifically related to the Sridevi Day market. These charts provide a visual representation of historical results, showcasing the winning number combinations and their corresponding outcomes. They serve as valuable tools for players to analyze past patterns and trends, aiding in making informed betting decisions. Whether you're an experienced player or new to the game, these charts offer crucial insights into the Sridevi Day market, helping you navigate the world of Satta Matka with more confidence and strategy.
sridevi day jodi chart    
sridevi day panel chart
sridevi day chart
 
The Madhur Day Jodi Chart, Madhur Day Chart, and Madhur Day Panel Chart are integral aspects of the Satta Matka game, specifically associated with the Madhur Day market. These charts visually depict historical results, displaying the winning number combinations and their associated outcomes over time. They function as invaluable tools for players, enabling them to analyze past patterns and trends, thus assisting in making informed betting decisions. Whether you're a seasoned participant or new to the game, these charts offer essential insights into the Madhur Day market, facilitating a better understanding and enhancing your ability to strategize effectively in the dynamic world of Satta Matka.
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satta bazar [103.138.232.xxx] เมื่อ 16/09/2023 17:21
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