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สมาชิก

สมัครสมาชิก | ลืมรหัสผ่าน

ความรู้เกี่ยวกับเหล็ก

อ่าน 606466 | ตอบ 7608
ประเภทของเหล็กกล้า


เหล็กกล้าเป็นเหล็กที่ถูกนำไปใช้ในงานต่างๆมากมาย ทั้งนี้เนื่องจากเหล็กกล้านั้น มีคุณสมบัติในการรับแรงต่างๆได้ดี เช่น แรงกระแทก (Impact Strength) แรงดึง (Tensile Strength) แรงอัด (Compressive Strength) และ แรงเฉือน (Shear Strength) ซึ่งธาตุผสมส่วนใหญ่จะเป็นทั้งโลหะและอโลหะ เช่น โมลิบดินั่ม ทังสเตน วาเนเดียม เป็นต้น โดยเหล้กกล้าสามารถแบ่งออกเป็น 2 ชนิด ดังนี้

icon เหล็กกล้าคาร์บอน (Carbon steels)
หมายถึง เหล็กกล้าที่มีส่วนผสมของธาตุคาร์บอนเป็นธาตุหลักที่มีอิทธิพลอย่างมากต่อ
คุณสมบัติทางกลของเหล็ก และยังมีธาตุอื่นผสมอยู่อีก ซึ่งแบ่งเหล็กกล้าคาร์บอนออก
เป็น 3 ประเภท ดังนี้

1. เหล็กกล้าคาร์บอนต่ำ (Low Carbon Steel)

เป็นเหล็กที่มีปริมาณคาร์บอนไม่เกิน 0.25% นอกจากคาร์บอนแล้ว ยังมีธาตุอื่นผสม- อยู่ด้วย เช่น แมงกานีส ซิลิคอน ฟอสฟอรัส และกำมะถัน แต่มีปริมาณน้อยเนื่องจาก หลงเหลือมาจากกระบวนการผลิต เหล็กประเภทนี้ถูกนำไปใช้ในอุตสาหกรรม และใน ชีวิตประจำวันไม่ต่ำกว่า 90% เนื่องจากขึ้นรูปง่าย เชื่อมง่าย และราคาไม่แพง โดยเฉพาะเหล็กแผ่นมีการนำมาใช้งานอย่างกว้างขวาง เช่น ตัวถังรถยนต์ ชิ้นส่วนยานยนต์ต่างๆ กระป๋องบรรจุอาหาร สังกะสีมุงหลังคา เครื่องใช้ในครัวเรือน และในสำนักงาน

2. เหล็กกล้าคาร์บอนปานกลาง (Medium Carbon Steel)
เป็นเหล็กที่มีปริมาณ คาร์บอน 0.2-0.5% มีความแข็งแรงและความเค้นแรงดึงมากกว่า เหล็กกล้าคาร์บอนต่ำ แต่จะมีความเหนียวน้อยกว่า สามารถนำไปชุบแข็งได้ เหมาะกับ งานทำชิ้นส่วนเครื่องจักรกล รางรถไฟ เฟือง ก้านสูบ ท่อเหล็ก ไขควง เป็นต้น

3. เหล็กกล้าคาร์บอนสูง (High Carbon Steel)
เป็น เหล็กที่มีปริมาณคาร์บอน 0.5 - 1.5% มีความแข็งความแข็งแรงและความเค้น- แรงดึงสูง เมื่อชุบแข็งแล้วจะเปราะ เหมาะสำหรับงานที่ทนต่อการสึกหรอ ใช้ในการทำ เครื่องมือ สปริงแหนบ ลูกปืน เป็นต้น

icon เหล็กกล้าประสม (Alloys Steel)
หมายถึง เหล็กที่มีธาตุอื่นนอกจากคาร์บอน ผสมอยู่ในเหล็ก ธาตุบางชนิดที่ผสมอยู่ อาจมีปริมาณมากกว่าคาร์บอน คิดเป็นเปอร์เซนต์ โดยน้ำหนักในเหล็กก็ได้ธาตุที่ผสม ลงไปได้แก่ โมลิบดินั่ม แมงกานีส ซิลิคอน โครเมียม อลูมิเนียม นิกเกิล และวาเนเดียม เป็นต้นจุดประสงค์ที่ต้องเพิ่มธาตุต่างๆเข้าไปในเนื้อเหล็ก ก็เพื่อการทำให้คุณสมบัติของเหล็ก เปลี่ยนไปนั่นเองที่สำคัญก็คือ
1. เพิ่มความแข็ง
2. เพิ่มความแข็งแรงที่อุณหภูมิปกติและอุณหภูมิสูง
3. เพิ่มคุณสมบัติทางฟิสิกส์
4. เพิ่มความต้านทานการสึกหรอ
5. เพิ่มความต้านทานการกัดกร่อน
6. เพิ่มคุณสมบัติทางแม่เหล็ก
7. เพิ่มความเหนียวแน่นทนต่อแรงกระแทก

เหล็กกล้าประสม แบ่งออกเป็น 2 ประเภท ดังนี้
1. เหล็กกล้าประสมต่ำ ( Low Alloy Steels )

เป็นเหล็กกล้าที่มีธาตุ ประสมรวมกันน้อยกว่า 8% ธาตุที่ผสมอยู่คือ โครเมี่ยม นิกเกิล โมลิบดินั่ม และแมงกานีส ปริมาณของธาตุที่ใช้ผสมแต่ละตัวจะไม่มากประมาณ 1 – 2% ผลจากการผสมทำให้เหล็กสามารถชุบแข็งได้ มีความแข็งแรงสูง เหมาะสำหรับใช้
ในการทำชิ้นส่วนเครื่องจักรกล เช่น เฟือง เพลาข้อเหวี่ยง จนบางครั้งมีชื่อว่าเหล็กกล้า เครื่องจักรกล (Machine Steelsเหล็กกล้ากลุ่มนี้จะต้องใช้งานในสภาพชุบแข็งและอบ
ก่อนเสมอจึงจะมีค่าความแข็งแรงสูง

2. เหล็กกล้าประสมสูง (High alloy steels)
เหล็กกล้าประเภทนี้จะถูก ปรับปรุงคุณสมบัติ สำหรับการใช้งานเฉพาะอย่าง ซึ่งก็จะมี ธาตุประสมรวมกันมากกว่า 8% เช่น เหล็กกล้าทนความร้อน เหล็กกล้าทนการเสียดสี และเหล็กกล้าทนการกัดกร่อน






ขอบคุณข้อมูล จาก LPN Plate
http://www.lpnpm.co.th/th/knowledge.php

ความคิดเห็น :
3988
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Jack Smith
Before you can perform a Kucoin Login , you need to create an account. Visit the KuCoin website and click on the 'Sign Up' button. Provide the required information, such as your email address, username, and password. Make sure to choose a strong and unique password to secure your account. Gemini Login  Gemini Login  Kraken Login  Kraken Login  Kucoin Login  Kucoin Login  Metamask Login  Metamask Wallet  Metamask Extension  Phantom Wallet  Trezor wallet  Robinhood login  Robinhood login Account  Robinhood .com login  Crypto.com login  Bitmart Login  bitbuy login  CoinSmart login
 
 
Jack Smith [122.50.197.xxx] เมื่อ 29/06/2023 20:13
3989
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whelendit
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whelendit [213.142.147.xxx] เมื่อ 29/06/2023 21:39
3990
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rhelenrez
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rhelenrez [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 29/06/2023 23:17
3991
อ้างอิง

vbettycoa
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vbettycoa [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 00:21
3992
อ้างอิง

klindabtw
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klindabtw [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 01:25
3993
อ้างอิง

qkimberlybxa
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qkimberlybxa [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 02:53
3994
อ้างอิง

msarahucy
https://capedge.com/note/649dcee80b70c9d1b9f28fd0 https://capedge.com/note/649dcfec0b70c9565df29515 https://capedge.com/note/649dd0a80b70c94c5ef298e6 https://capedge.com/note/649dd0ef0b70c9d7f3f29a9d https://capedge.com/note/649dd1280b70c932f9f29bce https://capedge.com/note/649dd1580b70c954f3f29cf9 https://capedge.com/note/649dd2610b70c93308f2a251 https://capedge.com/note/649dd28e0b70c9a7a6f2a346 https://capedge.com/note/649dd3300b70c9c246f2a69f https://capedge.com/note/649dd3650b70c9b30df2a7d1 https://capedge.com/note/649dd3ac0b70c97b38f2a9e9 https://capedge.com/note/649dd3eb0b70c98338f2ab88 https://capedge.com/note/649dd41c0b70c95fd5f2ac99 https://capedge.com/note/649dd45a0b70c90116f2addc https://capedge.com/note/649dd4910b70c93d01f2aefc https://capedge.com/note/649dd6bc0b70c9455af2bac2 https://capedge.com/note/649dd7790b70c95180f2be76 https://capedge.com/note/649dd7b00b70c90669f2bfad https://capedge.com/note/649dd7dc0b70c9375af2c093 https://capedge.com/note/649dd8090b70c984adf2c183 https://capedge.com/note/649dd8380b70c99ee4f2c26f https://capedge.com/note/649dd8970b70c95355f2c459 https://capedge.com/note/649dd8c90b70c9019df2c56f https://capedge.com/note/649dd8fb0b70c9c3b7f2c653 https://capedge.com/note/649dd92e0b70c930aff2c753 https://capedge.com/note/649dd9570b70c985b7f2c859 https://capedge.com/note/649dd9840b70c969acf2c962 https://capedge.com/note/649dd9b10b70c9e1ecf2ca3f https://capedge.com/note/649dd9de0b70c97b10f2cb44 https://capedge.com/note/649ddac10b70c94a66f2cf93 https://capedge.com/note/649ddb270b70c98136f2d1a7 https://capedge.com/note/649ddb8c0b70c922f5f2d3a5 https://capedge.com/note/649ddbbc0b70c9cb95f2d4a1 https://capedge.com/note/649ddbea0b70c99215f2d58c https://capedge.com/note/649ddc1b0b70c9d779f2d67f https://capedge.com/note/649ddc4c0b70c90f2bf2d79b https://capedge.com/note/649ddccd0b70c90819f2da37 https://capedge.com/note/649ddcfa0b70c916dcf2db1a https://capedge.com/note/649ddd5a0b70c9fa74f2dcec https://capedge.com/note/649dde1a0b70c914b4f2e0ae https://capedge.com/note/649dde4a0b70c94c39f2e17f https://capedge.com/note/649ddeb20b70c907d1f2e368 https://capedge.com/note/649ddf350b70c9a6e2f2e5c6 https://capedge.com/note/649ddf680b70c947b3f2e6b5 https://capedge.com/note/649ddf970b70c93d93f2e783 https://capedge.com/note/649ddfcd0b70c9a813f2e865 https://capedge.com/note/649ddfff0b70c9ddbdf2e945 https://capedge.com/note/649de0320b70c90b2ff2ea3a https://capedge.com/note/649de0d60b70c9fb3ef2ed42 https://capedge.com/note/649de16c0b70c98d34f2f027
 
msarahucy [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 04:01
3995
อ้างอิง

hmargaretkrm
 
hmargaretkrm [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 05:04
3996
อ้างอิง

odorothyjtj
 
odorothyjtj [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 06:05
3997
อ้างอิง

lsusanlve
 
lsusanlve [149.56.18.xxx] เมื่อ 30/06/2023 07:06
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